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TransJakarta BRT: Bigger becoming better [free access]

May 1, 2012

Operationalised in January 2004, TransJakarta is currently the world’s largest bus rapid transit (BRT) system, with a network spanning over 183.6 km, encompassing 11 corridors in Jakarta, the capital and largest city of Indonesia. It was also the first BRT system in Southeast Asia. Over the years, the system has demonstrated huge potential in enabling a modal shift from private motor vehicles to public transportation. However, it has not been performing to full potential due to poor maintenance and resource crunches.


Project details

The TransJakarta BRT, like most other BRTs, was conceived to tackle growing traffic congestion in the city. The system was developed by the Badan Layanan Umum Transjakarta Busway (BLU), and the first year of operation saw the commencement of the first corridor with a 12.9-km fully segregated median busway. Over the years, another 10 lines were operationalised, with the latest added in December 2011. Each of the corridors has individual operators.


The details of the corridors are provided in Table 1.


Table 1: Details of operational TransJakarta corridors


Terminal Stations


Distance covered (km)


Corridor 1

Blok M Terminal-Kota



PT. Jakarta Express Trans

Corridor 2

Pulo Gadung Terminal-Harmoni



PT. Trans Batavia

Corridor 3

Kalideres Terminal-Harmoni



PT. Trans Batavia

Corridor 4

Pulo Gadung Terminal-Dukuh Atas



PT. Jakarta Trans Metropolitan and PT. Jakarta Mega Trans

Corridor 5

Kampung Melayu Terminal-Ancol



PT. Jakarta Mega Trans and PT. Eka Sari Lorena

Corridor 6




PT. Jakarta Trans Metropolitan

Corridor 7

Kampung Rambutan Terminal-Kampung Melayu Terminal



PT. Eka Sari Lorena

Corridor 8

Lebak Bulus Terminal-Harmoni



PT. Primajasa Perdayana Utama

Corridor 9

Pinang Ranti Terminal-Pluit



Bianglala Metropolitan and PT. Trans Mayapada Busway

Corridor 10

Cililitan-Tanjung Priok



PT. Metropolitan Ferris (BMP)


Corridor 11

Kampung Melayu-Pulogebang



PT. Trans Mayapada Busway






Source: Global Mass Transit Research




Despite its vast network, the system has not been sufficiently effective in attracting private vehicle users, even though the number of BRT passengers has consistently increased. Between 2004 and 2011, TransJakarta’s ridership increased at a compound annual growth rate of 55.5 per cent. In 2011, TransJakarta buses served 114 million people, with an average of 350,000 passengers per day. Of this total, 15 per cent were private vehicle users who had switched to buses.


The key reasons behind the falling performance of TransJakarta include:




The revenue source for the BLU is fares and government subsidies. The BLU provides compensation to bus operators on a pro rata basis, per kilometre.


As of 2012, the BRT system is completely funded by the central government. The government also provides a fare subsidy for tickets. TransJakarta fares have remained stable at IDR3,500 since 2004. The subsidy per passenger-ticket was IDR2,901 in 2011 and is expected to be around IDR2,114 in 2012.


At the time of the inception of the BRT, the government had envisaged that subsidies would not be required from 2014, as revenue earned through fare collection would be sufficient to compensate BLU’s costs. However, judging from the current state of affairs, this seems unlikely.




As of November 2011, TransJakarta has 524 buses in operation. The fleet has a mix of articulated and regular buses. While the regular buses are mostly Mercedes-Benz OH and Hino RG, the articulated buses have been supplied by China-based HuangHai and Komodo.


Each bus is equipped with an electronic board and speakers that announce the name of upcoming bus stops in two languages, Bahasa Indonesia and English. Also, each bus is equipped with a bi-directional radio transceiver to allow the driver to provide and receive updated information on traffic jams, road accidents or lost items.


In 2012, TransJakarta revealed plans to add 114 articulated buses by the year’s end. Articulated buses were chosen because they have almost double the passenger capacity (up to 160 passengers) of a single bus which can carry up to 85 passengers. Articulated buses currently run on corridors 5, 9 and 11. The plan is to operate articulated buses in all corridors.


New fare collection system


In July 2011, TransJakarta and the regional development bank DKI Bank signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) to implement an integrated electronic ticketing system (based on smart cards) fully funded by DKI Bank. The system is expected to be operational on all 11 BRT corridors by July 2012.


The tickets, to be provided by the Capital City Bank, will be available in three formats—multi-trip, single trip and bank card called JakCard. The JakCard will not only be used for fare payment but also for retail transactions. It will be accepted at merchants, such as Indomaret, who have teamed up with DKI Bank.


Improvement initiatives


In December 2010, the government decided to transform the TransJakarta institution from a full public service agency (BLU) to a government-owned private company (BUMD). The TransJakarta Transformation & Restructuring (TTR) team, which was established through a government decree, is implementing the process. As of December 2011, two drafts of local regulation on the TransJakarta BUMD and TransJakarta System Management were submitted and discussed by the DKI Jakarta parliament.


The government is simultaneously promoting the BRT system through fare-free days and car-free days. Car-free days in Jakarta open the city streets to pedestrians and bicyclists, with TransJakarta as the only vehicular option. Initially held once a month, there are plans of making this a weekly event.


TransJakarta has introduced an improved passenger information system at some transfer stations, which include colour code signage to assist passengers in recognising each corridor and display maps providing information.


Initially, the TransJakarta BRT was a closed trunk system without a functioning feeder system. However, in September 2011, feeder routes were introduced to facilitate connectivity and enhance operational performance. The Jakarta Transportation Agency (JTA) is planning to double the number of feeder buses. Currently, 15 buses act as feeders, connecting the Pulo Gadung bus terminal in East Jakarta with neighbouring Bekasi bus terminal in West Java.


Previously, regular bus drivers protested the operation of TransJakarta feeder buses because they were operating on the same routes, but the protests subsided when JTA changed the feeder routes. The previous feeder-bus route was Bekasi bus terminal-West Bekasi-Cikampek toll road-Cakung-Pulo Gadung bus terminal. The new route is Bekasi bus terminal-West Bekasi-Cikampek toll road-inner-city toll road-Jl. Perintis Kemerdekaan-Pulomas-Pulo Gadung bus terminal.


Further, TransJakarta has applied for the extension of operational hours from 10 pm to 11 pm to increase ridership. Four more corridors (12 – 15) are planned for the BRT system expansion.


(1 IDR [Indonesian Rupiah] = 0.0001 USD)